Iraq 1987-88: Anfal Campaign in Kurdistan
Martin van Bruinessen 1994a: "Genocide in Kurdistan?: The supression of the Dersim rebellion in Turkey (1937-38) and the chemical war against the Iraqi Kurds (1988)", George J. Andreopoulos (der.), Genocide: Conceptual and historical dimensions (University of Pennsylvania Press, p. 141-170.
Martin van Bruinessen. Kurdish Ethno-Nationalism Versus Nation-Building States. Collected articles. Istanbul: The Isis Press, 2000. 301 pp., ills. ISBN 975-428-177-7
Human Rights Watch/ Middle East, Iraq's crime of genocide: the Anfal campaign against the Kurds (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995). For a bibliographical survey of publications on these events see my "Genocide of the Kurds" in: Israel W. Charny (ed.), The widening circle of genocide (Brunswick: Transaction, 1994), pp. 165-91.
Heval Hylan, "Genocide in Kurdistan", A dissertation presented in partial fulfillment of the Diploma in Legal Studies at the University of Auckland. Auckland, New Zealand. November 2000. http://www.gendercide.org/genocideinkurdistan.html
Kanan Makiya, Republic of Fear: The Politics of Modern Iraq.Republic of Fear (1989), became a best-seller after Saddam Husain's invasion of Kuwait. written under the pseudonym, Samir al-Khalil. www.brandeis.edu/departments/nejs/faculty.html
Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide New York : Basic Books, 2002, 384 pp.Chapter 8 of this book discusses genocide in Iraq (p. 173-245)
March 16 - Anniversary of the Halabja Massacre of Iraqi Kurds with chemical weapons by former Ba'athist regime of Saddam Hussein in Iraq (March 16, 1988). The Halabja Massacre occurred during a series of eight Anfal Campaigns targeting Kurds from Feb 23. to Sept. 6, 1988.
CHAK (Centre of Halabja againt Anfalization and genocide of Kurds) is a non-profit independent organization established in 2002 that acts against the genocide of the Kurds in Kurdistan (the Kurdish regions of Iraq, Turkey, Iran, and Syria). Its aim is to increase awareness about the genocide campaigns and human rights abuses committed against the Kurds. Website in Arabic, Dutch, English, Kurdish, and Farsi www.chak.info
Captured Iraqi Secret Police Files Eighteen tons of documents were captured by Kurdish groups from Iraqi secret police stations, interrogation centers and prisons during a March 1991 uprising. These documents were shipped to the United States for safekeeping and analysis in two separate shipments in May 1992 and August 1993. The documents are now available for research at the University of Colorado at Boulder.
INDICT, a group of individuals and organizations across the world, was created in 1996 for the purpose of bringing Saddam Hussein and other leading figures in the current regime in Iraq before an international tribunal to face charges of war crimes, crimes against humanity, crimes against peace and the crime of genocide.
GENOCIDE IN IRAQ The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds (Human Rights Watch) 13 chapters with 5 appendixes Appendices
INFORCE (International Forensic Centre of Excellence for the investigation of Genocide (est. 2000, Bournemouth Univ., Dorset) www.inforce.org.uk
Iraq's Legacy of Terror: Mass Graves February 19, 2004 English and Arabic /www.usaid.gov/iraq/legacyofterror.html Since the Saddam Hussein regime was overthrown in May, 270 mass graves have been reported. By mid-January, 2004, the number of confirmed sites climbed to fifty-three. 16 page PDF file, 4 phots 1 map
INDICT was established in late 1997 to campaign for the creation of an ad hoc International Criminal Tribunal - similar to those established for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda - to try leading members of the Iraqi regime on charges of war crimes and crimes against humanity, including genocide and torture. http://www.indict.org.uk/ http://www.indict.org.uk/InnerFrames/TheAnfal.htm
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