Bosnia-Herzegovia 1992-1995: Serb "Etnicko Ciscenje" of Bosnian Muslims

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(Last revised May 24, 2005)

Other resources pages: Past Genocides 1901-1950: Hereros 1904 | Armenian 1915  | Holodomor 1933 | Shoah 1941 | Parajmos 1941
Past Genocides 1951-2000: East Bengal 1971 | Burundi 1972  | Cambodia 1975 | Guatemala 1982  | Iraqi Kurds 1988 | Bosnia 1992 | Rwanda 1994

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Bosnia Homepage

This year is the 10th anniversary of the Srebrenica Massacre in Bosnia (July 11-16, 1995). See

Conference: "Genocide Against Bosniaks in the U.N. Safe Area Srebrenica, July 1995" Location: Sarajevo and Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina Date: July 10-14, 2005 Sponsor: Institut za istraživanje zlocina protiv covjecnosti i medjunarodnog prava Univerziteta u Sarajevu (Institute for Research of Crimes against Humanity and International Law of Sarajevo University) est. 1992.

Konvencija o spriječavanju i kažnjavanju zločina genocida
Usvojena Rezolucijom 260 (III) A na Generalnoj Skupštini Ujedinjenih Nacija 09 Decembra 1948.godine. Stupanje na snagu 12 Januara 1951. godine.

Pravna definicija genocida (uključujući diskusiju i značenja) Izraz genocid je prvi put upotrijebio jevrejski advokat u Poljskoj Rafael Lemkin 1943. na osnovu grčke riječi "genos" (rasa, pleme) i latinske riječi "cide" (ubiti). Ujedinjene nacije po Međunarodnom zakonu iz 1951. godine, genocid smatraju zločinom.

"Etnicko Ciscenje" is the Serbian, Croat and Bosniak term meaning "Ethnic Cleansing". The term "Ethnic Cleansing" entered the English language through the news media in the summer of 1992. (See "Ethnic Cleansing and International Law" by Drazen Petrovic )

Bibliography of Books in Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian on Genocide and related topics This bibliography includes items published immediately before and during the destruction of Yugoslavia (late 1980s and early 1990s) when newly publicized atrocities from the World War II period played a considerable role in polarizing and escalating violence among ethnic groups in the former Yugoslavia.

ICTY Appeals Chamber: "Genocide was committed in Srebrenica in 1995" In the Case the Prosecutor v. Radislav Krstic, on April 19, 2004 the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (The Hague, Netherlands) unanimously found that "genocide was committed in Srebrenica in 1995." Previously on August 2, 2001 the ICTY found former Bosnian Serb General-Major Radislav Krstic guilty of genocide in the Srebrencia Massacre (July 11-16, 1995) and sentenced him to 46 years in prison. Established as a "safe area"in the Spring of 1993, in 1995 Srebrenica became the site of Europe's worst massacre since World War Two with more than 7,000 Muslim men and boys were killed. Krstic carried out the genocidal massacre on orders from former Serb leader Radovan Karadzic and General Ratko Mladic, both of whom remain at large. Krstic's defense lawyers appealed his verdict, claiming the numbers of men and boys killed were "too insignificant" to be called genocide. On April 19, 2004 presiding appeals judge, Theodor Meron (USA), and four others - Fausto Pocar (Italy), Mohamed Shahabuddeen (Guyana), Mehmet Güney (Turkey) and Wolfgang Schomburg (Germany) - upheld the genocide verdict. The ruling established the important legal precedent that a massacre targeting a "substantial part" of a population group, even when targeting only one sex, could be called genocide. Judge Meron wrote: "They stripped all the male Muslim prisoners, military and civilian, elderly and young, of their personal belongings and identification, and deliberately and methodically killed them solely on the basis of their identity". In Krstic's case, however, the judges, found that while implementing the orders, he lacked genocidal intent and was guilty only of "aiding and abetting genocide", a lesser crime not included in his original indictment. Therefore the appeals judges reduced Krstic's prison sentence from 46 to 35 years. [ Read the text on theICTY website ]

'Erased Residents' (izbrisani) in Slovenia On April 4, 2004 voters in a non-binding referendum upheld the 12-year-old policy creating 'erased residents' (izbrisani) in Slovenia. In 1992, eight month after declaring independence from Yugoslavia, the government of Slovenia deleted some 30,000 persons from civil registries. Some call this policy 'administrative ethnic cleansing' or 'soft genocide.'

Books and Articles [List to be added]

Zaw¯at¯i, Hilm¯i Selected socio-legal bibliography on ethnic cleansing, wartime rape, and genocide in the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda / Hilmi M. Zawati, Ibtisam M. Mahmoud. 2005


"Ethnic Cleansing and International Law" Read Drazen Petrovic's 1994 discussion of the orgins of the term "Ethnic Cleaning" (etnicko ciscenje) which entered the international vocaulbary in 1992 and the relationship between this term to established internatonal crimes such as genocide. Drazen Petrovic Ethnic Cleansing - An Attempt at Methodology European Journal of International Law Vol. 5 (1994) No. 3

Branimir Anzulovic. Heavenly Serbia: From Myth to Genocide. New York and London: New York University Press, 1999. xiv + 233 pp

A valuable dissection of the mythical underpinnings of Serbia ultra-nationalism. These concepts and images have been skillfully manipulated by the Milosevic regime during the last decade to persue wars of genocide and expultion against Serbia's numerous ethnic neighbors. Anzulovic, a native of Croatia, focuses on the role of ideology in guiding genocidal actions: "the primary force leading to genocide is not the pathology of the individual organizing and committing the genocide, but the pathology of the ideas guiding them." (p. 4) He believes that the roots of Serbian genocidal behavior--and he accepts as given that Serbian actions have been genocidal--can be found in the mythology that arose to explain the battle of Kosovo of 1389. Although he distances himself rhetorically from accusations of reductionism ("It would be an error to assume that the memory of the Serbian medieval empire necessarily led to the latest war for a Greater Serbia ..." [p. 2]), in the body of his book Anzulovic does in fact interpret virtually every event in Serbia's history following 1389 through the prism of the Kosovo myths. Most outsiders blame the Serbs for the atrocities, but the Serbs themselves believe that they are the ones that are being just; it’s the rest of the world that is wrong. Anzulovic’s book explains why the Serbs, through a potent recollection of their own history, would bring death and destruction to the rest of the area and international condemnation and economic ruin on themselves.


Gary Jonathan Bass, Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals, Princeton University Press, 2000, 402 pp.

Gary Jonathan Bass, a professor of politics and international affairs at Princeton and a former reporter for the Economist, examines several cases: the trials of Bonapartists in 1815, trials following World War I of German war criminals and of Turks who carried out the genocide of the Armenians, the Nuremberg trials and their equivalents in Tokyo, and contemporary efforts to prosecute individuals guilty of war crimes in Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Chapter One: Introduction 3 Chapter Two: St. Helena 37 Chapter Three: Leipzig 58 Chapter Four: Constantinople 106 Chapter Five: Nuremberg 147 Chapter Six: The Hague 206 Chapter Seven: Conclusion 276 Chapter Eight: Epilogue 284

David Carment and Frank Harvey, Using Force to Prevent Ethnic Violence An Evaluation of Theory and Evidence, Praeger Publishers. Westport, Conn. 2000. 192 pp.

This book serves as an important research tool for students, scholars, and policy makers involved with ethnic conflict and international relations. Carment and Harvey examine how regional and international security organizations can prevent destructive ethnic conflict and manage cases in which violence already is at hand. They develop a conceptual framework for advancing basic research on the prevention and management of intrastate ethnic violence; evaluate theoretical knowledge about the nature of ethnic conflict, using case material and quantitative assessments: and apply these assumptions against recent instances of conflict management through an in-depth study of NATO's involvement in Kosovo and Bosnia. Chapters include: Early Warning and Conflict Prevention: Theory and Practice * The Theory and Practice of Coercive Diplomacy; Part I * The Theory and Practice of Coercive Diplomacy, Part II: Controlling Escalation Through Deterrence and Compellence * Predicting Success and Failure States Versus Institutions * NATO and Post-Conflict Resolution in Bosnia and Kosovo * Evaluating Third Party Efforts to End Intrastate Ethnic Conflict * Conclusion: The Evolution of Ethnic Conflict. David Carment is Associate Professor of International Affairs at Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada. Frank Harvey is Associate Professor of Political Science at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Canada.


Tom Gallagher (b. 1954), The Balkans after the Cold War : from tyranny to tragedy, London : Routledge, 2003.

Contents: Challenges and crises after the communist era -- The international dimension of the escalating crisis in Yugoslavia -- The war in Croatia and the countdown to the Bosnian conflict, July 1991-May 1992 ---Genocide and dispossession in Bosnia and the international response -- The Bosnian endgame : survival amidst tragedy and international rancour -- International intervention in the Balkans 1995-7 : limited goals and capabilities -- Authoritarian rule in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index. Subjects: Yugoslavia--History--1980-1992. Yugoslav War, 1991-1995. Former Yugoslav republics--History.


Clea Koff, The bone woman : a forensic anthropologist's search for truth in the mass graves of Rwanda, Bosnia, Croatia, and Kosovo (New York : Random House), 2004.

David Bruce MacDonald, Balkan holocausts? : Serbian and Croatian victim-centred propaganda and the war in Yugoslavia, New York : Manchester University Press ; New York : Distributed exclusively in the USA by Palgrave, 2002.

Adam Jones (b. 1963), Genocide, war crimes, and the West : ending the culture of impunity / edited by . Portion of Title: Ending the culture of impunity Culture of impunity Published/Created: London ; New York : Zed Books ; 400 pp New York : Distributed exclusively in the U.S. by Palgrave

Genocide is the focus of growing scholarly attention and controversy. Genocide, War Crimes and the West expands the debate by exploring the involvement of the USA and other liberal 'Western' democracies in activities supposedly restricted to totalitarian Europe and certain authoritarian Third World regimes? In the first Part, important analytical issues are considered, including the question of where responsibility for genocide resides, the variety of domestic and international institutional responses, and the moral basis for accusing Western countries of complicity. In the second Part, a large number of original case studies make clear how broadly conceived the subject ought to be; the wide range of state behaviours that can be criticised as constituting genocide, war crimes, or comparable mass violations of human rights; and the remedies that ought to be available. At a moment in history when terrorism has become a near universal focus of public attention, this volume shows why the actions of the West, both in centuries past and the Cold War era, have excited such widespread resentment and hatred around the world. 'In the names of millions of forgotten victims, from Wounded Knee to My Lai, a brilliant tribunal of scholars assail the himalayan hypocrisy of 'Western humanitarianism.' - Mike Davis, author of Late Victorian Holocausts 'This book documents one of the darkest chapters of recent history. It tells the story of what the 'First World', Western democracies, most prominently the United States, have committed mainly against countries and peoples in the South and in the former socialist world. It is the history of aggression, indiscriminate bombing, war crimes, and massacres since the 1970s, the story of Western complicity in genocide in the South and East, and worse, it is about genocide committed by democracies. This path-breaking book of 25 chapters finally fills a huge void; it carefully accounts for serious crimes others have shamefully avoided, omitted or denied.' - Christian P. Scherrer, Professor for Peace Studies at the Hiroshima Peace Institute, Japan; author of Genocide and Crisis

Contents::Part 1: Overview::1. Introduction: Genocide, War::Crimes and the West - Adam Jones::2. Shades of Complicity: Towards a Typology of Transnational Crimes against Humanity - Peter Stoett::Part 2: Cases::3. Imperial Germany and the Herero of Southern Africa: Genocide and the Quest for Recompense - Jan-Bart Gewald::4. Genocide by Any Other Name: North American Indian Residential Schools in Context - Ward Churchill ::5. The Allies in World War Two: The Anglo-American Bombardment of German Cities - Eric Langenbacher::6. Torture and Other Violations of the Law by the French Army during the Algerian War - Raphaëlle Branche::7. Atrocity and Its Discontents: U.S. Double-Mindedness about Massacre, from the Plains Wars to Indonesia - Peter Dale Scott::8. Bob Kerrey's Atrocity, the Crime of Vietnam, and the Historic Pattern of U.S. Imperialism - S. Brian Willson::Document 1 ::(1) Inaugural Statement to the Russell Vietnam War Crimes Tribunal (1966) -- Jean-Paul Sartre::9. Charles Horman et alia vs. Henry Kissinger: U.S. Intervention in 1970s Chile and the Case for Prosecutions - Mario I. Aguilar::10. The Wretched of the Nations: The West's Role in Human Rights Violations::in the Bangladesh War of Independence - Suhail Islam and Syed Hassan::11. Indicting Henry Kissinger: The Response of Raphael Lemkin - Steven L. Jacobs::12. Crimes of the West in Democratic Congo: Reflections on Belgian Acceptance of "Moral Responsibility" for the Death of Lumumba - Thomas Turner::13. In the Name of the Cold War: How the West Aided and Abetted the Barre Dictatorship of Somalia - Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi ::14. The Security Council: Behind the Scenes in the Rwanda Genocide - Linda R. Melvern::15. U.S. Policy and Iraq: A Case of Genocide? - Denis J. Halliday::Documents 2 & 3::(2) Criminal Complaint against the United States and Others for Crimes against the People of Iraq (1996) - Ramsey Clark::(3) Letter to the Security Council (2001) - Ramsey Clark::16. The Fire in 1999? The United States, Nato, and the Bombing of Yugoslavia - David Bruce Macdonald::17. Collateral Damage: The Human Cost of Structural Violence - Peter G. Prontzos::Part 3: Truth and Restitution::18. Institutional Responses to Genocide and Mass Atrocity - Ernesto Verdeja::19. International Citizens' Tribunals on Human Rights - Arthur Jay Klinghoffer::20. Coming to Terms with the Past: The Case for a Truth and Reparations Commission on Slavery, Segregation, and Colonialism - Francis Njubi Nesbitt::Document 4::4) The World Conference against Racism: Declarations on the Transatlantic Slave Trade::Part 4: Closing Observations::21. Afghanistan and Beyond - Adam Jones::22. Letter to America - Breyten Breytenbach::Index Notes References Index

Stjepan Mestrovic, editor, Genocide after Emotion The Postemotional Balkan War Routledge, 1996 240pp

Takis Michas, Unholy Alliance: Greece and Milosevic's Serbia in the Nineties, Texas A&M University Press: Eastern European Studies (College Station, Tex.), 192 p

This is an account of the war in the Balkans during the 1990s. As the only member of NATO and the European Union to support Slobodan Milosevic's regime in the conflict following the breakup of Yugoslavia, Greece broke ranks with its western allies, frustrating their efforts to impose sanctions against Serbia. The work looks at Greek-Serbian relations and tackles the difficult question of how the Greek people could ignore Serbian aggression and war crimes. Journalistic accounts are combined with anecdotes and personal interviews to show a pattern of Greek support for Milosevic and Radovan Karadzic that implicates Greek politicians from all parties, as well as the Greek Orthodox Church, the Greek media, and ultimately the Greek people themselves. The evidence and conclusions presented aim to question the opinion that a new liberal order replaced the ideological standoff of the Cold War, but it will not surprise those who suspected that older allegiances have now claimed loyaties of many of the world's peoples.
"what seemed incomprehensible during the Bosnia and Kosovo wars was not so much that Greece sided with Serbia, but that it sided with Serbia's darkest side" (p. 4).
These waves have not reached Greece, though, a country that was rejoicing after the "fall" of Srebrenica in July 1995 at the hands of Bosnian Serbs and their allies, Greek paramilitaries. The latter in fact raised the Greek flag in Srebrenica after its capture: for those who may try to contest this fact, a photo is provided (p. 22),
Another revealing part of the Dutch report on Srebrenica is the reference to the support of the Bosnian Serb army by the Greek (alongside Israeli and Ukrainian) secret services which provided them with arms and ammunition. Michas' book makes this look even more credible when it reveals that NATO military secrets on the August 1995 air strikes were passed on to Mladic on direct orders of then socialist Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou: the author's source is none other than Papandreou's personal intermediary with Karadzic and Milosevic, the -then and now-President of Greek-Serbian Friendship Association, who was carrying out the mission (pp. 38-39)TAKIS MICHAS is a Greek journalist and author of books and articles on Greek political history and modern philosophy. .



Norman M. Naimark, Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe, (Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press, 2001). 248 pp.

Linda M. Woolf: In his latest work, Stanford University historian Norman Naimark offers a brilliantly engaging and deeply dispiriting examination of the role of ethnic cleansing in twentieth-century Europe. In doing so, he provides the reader with a series of well-crafted, cogent, analytical narratives describing the historical origins, political objectives, logistical procedures and savage outcomes of five case studies of ethnic cleansing: the Turkish actions against the Armenians in 1915 and against the Anatolian Greeks in 1921-22; the Nazi assault on the Jews from the start of the Second World War to the initiation of policies of mass extermination in 1941; the Soviet deportation of the Chechens-Ingush from the North Caucasus and of the Tatars from the Crimea in 1944; the expulsions of Germans from Poland and Czechoslovakia after 1945; and the more recent inter-ethnic conflicts, and attempts at international intervention, in Bosnia and Kosovo, which have brought the term "ethnic cleansing" into common usage. . . .[Naimark] argues, it is important to distinguish between "ethnic cleansing" and genocide. These two activities are characterised by their different objectives. "Genocide is the intentional killing off of part or all of an ethnic, religious or national group; the murder of a people or peoples ... is the objective. The intention of ethnic cleansing is to remove a people and often all traces of them from a concrete territory" (p. 3). . . Throughout the case studies, Naimark stresses three further aspects of ethnic cleansing that testify to its "totalizing" scope. He consolidates these themes in his conclusion. Firstly, in almost all instances the authorities responsible for uprooting populations have striven to eradicate from the purged territory all residual traces of the former existence of these departing groups. To achieve this, the instigators of ethnic cleansing do not stop at the demolition of material remains of the displaced, levelling churches, mosques, synagogues, monuments, graveyards and frequently homes (though sometimes the houses are occupied by neighbors or new settlers of the ethnic majority population). They also destroy all cultural and linguistic residues, burning books, encyclopaedias, dictionaries and archives, changing place and street-names, re-writing history books and ethnographies or proscribing the use of a language. Secondly, ethnic cleansing also involves dispossessing the displaced population. Sometimes the state itself undertakes to expropriate their property. More often it encourages its supporters to rob, exploit and cheat the refugees out of their possessions. There is purpose in this criminality: to ensure departing communities have no means to return, and to ensure that if they do return, they can make no claims over confiscated or stolen property. Finally, ethnic cleansing is deeply misogynistic, invariably being directed disproportionately at female populations as the "cultural and biological repository of the nation" (p. 83). In particular, Naimark underlines the use of systematic campaigns of rape as a "tool of ethnic cleansing" (p. 197), employed to terrorize the target population, to drive them out of their homes and territories, and to punish and humiliate them for their difference.


Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide New York : Basic Books, 2002, 384 pp.

Chapters 9, 11 and 12 of this book discuss war crimes and genocide in the former Yugoslavia (p. 247-328, 391-474)

James Ron, Frontiers and ghettos : state violence in Serbia and Israel, Berkeley : University of California Press, 2003.

Ron James is the author of Weapons transfers and violations of the laws of war in Turkey (New York : Human Right[s] Watch, 1995) . Contents: Institutional settings and violence -- Bosnian frontier formation ---Ethnic cleansing on the Bosnian frontier ---Ethnic harassment in the Serbian core -- Kosovo's changing institutional fate -- Creating the Palestinian ghetto -- Policing the ghetto -- Alternatives to policing. Notes: Includes bibliographical references and index. Subjects: State-sponsored terrorism--Yugoslavia--Serbia. State-sponsored terrorism--Israel. Serbia--Ethnic relations--Political aspects. Serbia--Politics and government--1992- Israel--Ethnic relations--Political aspects. Israel--Politics and government--1993-

James J. Sadkovich, The U.S. Media and Yugoslavia, 1991-1995, (Praeger Publishers. Westport, Conn. 1998), 296 pp.

"Sadkovich has compiled a truly masterly assessment of the US media's biased and generally inept, if perhaps well-intentioned, efforts to make sense of [the unraveling of Yugoslavia]. What emerges is a searing indictment of the manner in which American media -- press, radio, and television -- go about reporting information, layered with bias, stereotypes, agenda-setting, and judgmental ethnic evaluations of morality. A useful bibliography and chapter notes provide a valuable mine of information. Recommended for undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty."

Michael P. Scharf, William A. Schabas, Slobodan Milosevic on trial : a companion (New York : Continuum, 2002) 178 p. ;

Raju G.C. Thomas, Yugoslavia unraveled : sovereignty, self-determination, intervention, Lanham, Md. : Lexington Books, 2003.

Contents: Sovereignty, self-determination, and secession : principles and practice / Raju G.C. Thomas -- The future of nationalism / Michael Mandelbaum -- Transnational causes of genocide, or, How the West exacerbates ethnic conflict / Alan J. Kuperman -- Religion and war : fault lines in the Balkan enigma / P.H. Liotta -- Economic aspects of Yugoslavia's disintegration / Milica Z. Bookman -- International policy in southeastern Europe : a diagnosis / Gordon N. Bardos -- Wars, humanitarian intervention, and international law : perceptions and reality / Raju G.C. Thomas -- The use of refugees as political and military weapons in the Kosovo conflict / Kelly M. Greenhill -- Propaganda system one : from Diem and Arbenz to Milosevic / Edward S. Herman -- Biased justice : "humanrightism" and the international criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia / Robert M. Hayden -- Illegal wars, collateral damage, and international criminal law / Michael Mandel -- Intervention in ethnic civil wars and exit strategies : lessons from South Asia / Maya Chadda -- Reflections on the Yugoslav wars : a peacekeeper's perspective / Satish Nambiar.

Ed Vulliamy "Middle Managers of Genocide" (Bosnian Genocide)
Marla Stone "Bosnia’s Untenable Peace"

Reports and Reseach

Srebrenica Report 1999 (PDF file):  "Report of the Secretary-General pursuant to General Assembly resolution 53/35: the fall of Srebrenica" A/54/549 presented 15 November 1999. Written in accordance with resolution 53/35 approved by the General Assembly on November 30, 1998, Secretary-General Kofi Annan's report says the UN Security Council should have approved "more decisive and forceful action to prevent the unfolding horror" in Bosnia and that ''safe areas'' should never be established again without credible means of defence." The report refers to an "attempted genocide" in Bosnia. Since the conviction of perpetrators for genocide at the Hague in August 2001, the Srebreniica crime as become widely recongized as genocide.

"Srebrenica, a 'safe' area - reconstruction, background, consequences and analyses of the fall of a safe area" April 15, 2002. Read the Summary, Conclusion and Epilogue from the Report that caused the the entire Dutch Government to resign. Also read Four UN reports on Srebrenica, Rwanda and Genocide Prevention.

Burning the Evidence in Kosovo: 25 Jan 2001 During the war in Kosovo in 1999, war-crimes investigators suspected that Serbian forces were hiding evidence of atrocities by removing bodies of murdered Albanians from graves and execution sites. This is the story of a secret and grisly operation by Serbian security forces to destroy evidence of possible war crimes in an industrial furnace in northern Kosovo.


Annual Remembrance:

This year is the 10th anniversary of the Srebrenica Massacre in Bosnia (July 11-16, 1995). See

Conference: "Genocide Against Bosniaks in the U.N. Safe Area Srebrenica, July 1995" Location: Sarajevo and Srebrenica, Bosnia-Herzegovina Date: July 10-14, 2005 Sponsor: Institut za istraživanje zlocina protiv covjecnosti i medjunarodnog prava Univerziteta u Sarajevu (Institute for Research of Crimes against Humanity and International Law of Sarajevo University) est. 1992.

May 27 - Five years ago on May 27, 1999, Yugoslav President Slobadan Milosevic was indicted by International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) at the Hague. In the midst Serbia's enormous mass expulsion of Albanians Kosovars from Kosovo and the NATO Bombing campaign, the ICTY announced war crimes indictments against President Milosevic and four other top Serb officials. Milosevic was the first Head of State indicted by an international court.

July 11-16 Srebrenica Massacre in Bosnia (July 11-16, 1995). Established as a "safe area"in the Spring of 1993, Srebrenica became the site of Europe's worst massacre since World War Two in which some 8,000 Muslim men and boys were killed. in July 2003 the Bosnian Serb government announced Tuesday it would donate one million euros to the foundation maintaining the Potocari/Srebrenica Memorial and Cemetery for the victims of the Srebrenica massacre. The cemetery opened on September 20, 2003 with the burial of 107 victims alongside 882 already laid to rest at the cemetery.


Feature films:

Welcome to Sarajevo (1997, 102 min.) Michael Winterbottom Based on "Natasha's Story," the 1993 memoir of ITN correspondent Michael Nicholson. Director Michael Winterbottom has fashioned a remarkable film by taking the events in Nicholson's book and interweaving them with actual footage of the siege of Sarajevo. And he's couldn't have assembled a better cast; Stephen Dillaine and Woody Harrelson give the performances of their careers (thus far) as Henderson and Flynn, and they're ably supported by Kerry Fox, Marisa Tomei, Emira Nusevic, and a charismatic, pre-ER Goran Visnjic

Behind Enemy Lines 106 min. John Moore " Set in war-torn Bosnia, the film portrays a mass grave where victims of genocide lie decomposing in the mud. Violence ranges from deafening mine and tank explosions to point-blank shootings and spattering blood. A near-catatonic child sits amid the destruction in one scene. Owen Wilson plays Lt. Burnett, a cocky but amiable naval aviator flying reconnaissance missions over Bosnia. He and his pilot photograph something sinister and are shot down. Stranded, Burnett is hunted and marked for death by Serbs in the middle of a supposed cease-fire. Back on the aircraft carrier, the admiral (Gene Hackman) who once thought Burnett was a hotdog tries to mount a mission to save him, but NATO wants the United States to back off. The film derides NATO's good intentions but does better with the metaphor of a lone American caught between factions in a foreign war.".Jane Horwitz Wash. Post, 30 Nov 2001

Survivor testimonies

Click here - For Survivor and Eyewitness Testimonies from other Genocides


Bosfam (Bosanska familija - Bosnian Family) is a Bosnian non-governmental organization that was started in 1994 by a group of women displaced from Eastern Bosnia. Directed by Munira Beba Hadzic, Bosfam assists displaced women and returnees to generate income through carpet weaving and knitting, and through the ongoing provision of informal psycho-social help. Recently, Bosfam has begun to lay the groundwork for return to Srebrenica. Working under the conviction that women of all ethnicities were traumatized by the war, Bosfam works for reconciliation by helping all disadvantaged women of Srebrenica.

Udruzenje Gradjana "Zene Srebrenice" Tuzla, Bosnia- Citizens Association of 'Women of Srebrenica

The Appeal of Conscience Foundation
(est. 1965) is an interfaith coalition of business and religious leaders promoting religious freedom, human rights, peace, tolerance and ethnic conflict resolution throughout the world. Founder and President Rabbi Arthur Schneier (b. 1930) is a Holocaust survivor, Rabbi Schneier who survived the Nazi occupation of Budapest before ariving iin the United States in 1947. In the November 1992 "Berne Declaration: Appeal for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina" Rabbi Schneier and others asserted that "a crime committed in the name of religion is the greatest crime against religion."

Friends of Bosnia
(Est. 1995, Boston, MA, USA) Friends of Bosnia provides reconstruction and humanitarian aid to the Balkans and educates the American public about the wars, reconstruction, reconciliation, and peace.

Instituta za istrazivanje zlocina protiv covjecnosti i medjunarodnog prava
(Institute for Research of Crimes Against Humanity and International Law) Sarajevo

Imperial War Museum (London) Offers two permanent exhibitions concerning genocide: "The Holocaust Exhibition" (opened 2000) and "Crimes against humanity: an exploration of genocide and ethnic violence" examines the common features of genocides and instances of ethnic violence over the last one hundred years, including Nazi Germany, Bosnia, Cambodia, Armenia and Rwanda.

Women for Women International
(Wash.D.C., USA) Projects include work with genocide survivors in Bosnia and Rwanda

International War Crimes Project Est. 1996 Boston, MA at the New England School of Law. "During the past five years, the Center has provided more than 70 legal memoranda and hundreds of thousands of pages of supporting research" to the International Criminal Tribunals for the fromer Yugoslavia and for Rwanda (now available online).

Humanitarian Law Center
  (est. 1992, Belgrade)

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