Resources on this website | Books and Articles | Reports | Survivor testimonies
Commemoration | Film and Video | Websites (Last revised Sept. 21, 2005)
Other resources pages: Past Genocides 1901-1950: Hereros 1904 | Armenian 1915 | Holodomor 1933 | Shoah 1941 | Parajmos 1941
Past Genocides 1951-2000: East Bengal 1971 | Burundi 1972 | Cambodia 1975 | Guatemala 1982 | Iraqi Kurds 1988 | Bosnia 1992 | Rwanda 1994Kinyarwanda Language homepage. Secondary pages in Kinyarwanda include Itsembabwoko Amasezerano 1948. (article 2, 3 ) Amasezerano mpuzamahanga agamije kuburizamo umugambi wo gukora itsembabwoko kandi agamije no guhana icyo cyaha La genocide convention en 30 langues | Amagambo y'ingenzi (Key words and phrases) and Kinyarwanda Links.
Rwanda's Organic Law No. 08/96 on Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity In English (or French) A second law is not posted on tis website: 'Loi Organique No. 40/2000 du 26/01/2001 Portant Creation des ‘Jurisdictions Gacaca’ et Organisation des Pousuites des Infractions Constitutives du Crime de Genocide ou de Crimes contra L’Humanite, Commises enter le 1 Octobre 1990 et Le 31 Decembre 1994"
Rwanda: Prosecution of genocide in Rwandan domestic courts for the 1994 Rwandan genocide (prior to Gacaca)Indangamuntu 1994: Ten years ago in Rwanda this ID Card cost a woman her life Read how the Rwandan government's ethnic identity card's helped the killers to target their victims. By Jim Fussell
Ndiaye Report on Rwanda 1993: "Report by Special Rapporteur Bacre Waly Ndiaye on his mission to Rwanda from 8 to 17 April 1993" (25 pages) presented in August 1993. Bacre Waly Ndaiye of Senegal, Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, investigated the massacres and other violations committed between 1990 and 1993. He wrote "the victims of the attacks, Tutsis in the overwhelming majority of cases, have been targeted solely because of their membership of a certain ethnic group and for no other objective reason." He warned of the potential for escalating violence including the risk of genocide (paragraph 78). Ndaiye's report was largely ignored.
"International Day of Reflection on the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda." The UN General Assembly has designated April 7, 2004 a day of remembrance On December 23, 2003 the UN General Assembly approved a resolution recognizing the tenth anniversary of the genocide in Rwanda and designating April 7, 2004 as an "International Day of Reflection on the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda." April 7, 2004: The Tenth Anniversary of Genocide in Rwanda
Books on Genocide and related topics in Kinyarwanda and French
Roméo Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil (Random House of Canada, 2003), 584 pages. This book was published in Canada in October 2003 and will be published in the USA in August 2004. US customers can purchase the book now from www.amazon.ca and other Canadian web booksellers.
"I did try to write this story soon after I came back from Rwanda in September 1994, hoping to find some respite for myself in sorting out how my own role as Force Commander of UNAMIR [United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda] interconnected with the international apathy, the complex political manoeuvres, the deep well of hatred and barbarity that resulted in a genocide in which over 800,000 people lost their lives. Instead, I plunged into a disastrous mental health spiral that led me to suicide attempts, a medical release from the Armed Forces, the diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder, and dozens upon dozens of therapy sessions and extensive medication, which still have a place in my daily life. It took me seven years to finally have the desire, the willpower and the stamina to begin to describe in detail the events of that year in Rwanda. To recount, from my insider’s point of view, how a country moved from the promise of a certain peace to intrigue, the fomenting of racial hatred, assassinations, civil war and genocide"
"My story is not a strictly military account nor a clinical, academic study of the breakdown of Rwanda. It is not a simplistic indictment of the many failures of the UN as a force for peace in the world. It is not a story of heroes and villains, although such a work could easily be written. This book is a cri de coeur for the slaughtered thousands, a tribute to the souls hacked apart by machetes because of their supposed difference from those who sought to hang on to power. It is the story of a commander who, faced with a challenge that didn’t fit the classic Cold War–era peacekeeper’s rule book, failed to find an effective solution and witnessed, as if in punishment, the loss of some of his own troops, the attempted annihilation of an ethnicity, the butchery of children barely out of the womb, the stacking of severed limbs like cordwood, the mounds of decomposing bodies being eaten by the sun. This book is nothing more nor less than the account of a few humans who were entrusted with the role of helping others taste the fruits of peace. Instead, we watched as the devil took control of paradise on earth and fed on the blood of the people we were supposed to protect." - Roméo Dallaire Read an excerpt from Shake Hands with the Devil .
Linda Melvern, Conspiracy to murder : the Rwanda genocide (London ; New York : Verso, 2004) www.versobooks.com
Linda Melvern’s new book, the result of a decade of investigative work, is a damning indictment of almost all the key figures and the institutions involved. It reveals how the French military trained the killers, how the US is still withholding wiretap and satellite evidence that the genocide was about to begin, how the John Major government ignored vital warnings that the genocide was planned, how much Boutros Boutros-Ghali and the French government knew prior to the genocide and how the Security Council’s shameful decision to evacuate the peacekeepers came about. In addition to these official sources, the author draws on dozens of witness statements yet to be heard at the International Criminal Tribunal, at which she will be an expert witness, and a sixty-hour confession from the prime minister in the government that presided over the genocide never before made publicly available and currently locked in the safe of the chief prosecutors at the ICT court. Linda Melvern is a well-known and widely published investigative journalist. She is an Honorary Fellow of the University of Wales, Aberystwyth, and was a consultant to the Military One prosecution team at the International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda. Her previous books include The Ultimate Crime, a secret history of the UN’s first fifty years, and A People Betrayed.
Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide New York : Basic Books, 2002, 384 pp.
Samantha Power, The executive director of the Carr Center for Human Rights Policy at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, Power examines how Americans have very rarely marshaled their might to stop genocide and mass terror against Armenians, European Jews, Cambodians, Iraqi Kurds, Bosnians, and Rwandans. Power writes, "Whatever America's commitment to Holocaust remembrance (embodied in the presence of the Holocaust Museum on the Mall in Washington, D.C.), the United States has never intervened to stop genocide. This book is an effort to understand why. While the history of America's response to genocide is not an uplifting one, "A Problem from Hell" tells the stories of countless Americans who took seriously the slogan of "never again" and tried to secure American intervention. Only by understanding the reasons for their small successes and colossal failures can we understand what we as a country, and we as citizens, could have done to stop the most savage crimes of the last century." Drawing upon declassified cables, private papers, exclusive interviews with Washington's top policy-makers, and her own reporting from the modern killing fields in Bosnia in 1993, Power brings a story-teller's gift for gripping narrative together with a reporter's hunger for the inside story. With the authority of one who has witnessed such atrocities herself, Power goes on to set a visionary and yet feasible agenda for how the United States might change course to prevent or halt future genocide. "A Problem from Hell" makes a riveting moral argument for why, as both great power and global citizen, we must renew our vigilance against genocide. Power's chapter on Rwanda can be read online as "Bystanders to Genocide" in the September 2001 issue of the Atlantic Monthly . Also her conclusion was published in the New York Review of Books March 14, 2002. See Genocide and America .
Christian P. Scherrer, Genocide and crisis in Central Africa : conflict roots, mass violence, and regional war; foreword by Robert Melson. Westport, Conn. : Praeger, 2002.Scherrer examines the ethnicized conflicts, periodic war, and genocide in Rwanda and Burundi. The 1994 genocide in Rwanda may have resulted in the murder of a million Tutsi and moderate Hutu, while the mass killings in Burundi, especially in 1993 when some 200,000 Hutu and Tutsi were killed, and the current ongoing war in the Congo appear to have the potential to escalate into another round of genocide in the region. Scherrer explores the background to the conflicts in the Great Lakes Region as well as what the international community might do to break this tragic cycle of violence and despair. Following a chapter on the history of the region before independence in 1960/61, he examines the 1994 genocide in Rwanda and the subsequent attempts to promote justice, reconstruction, human rights work, and genocide prevention. Scherrer pays particular attention to the role of the Western powers, the UN, and the aid system--and he is critical of all of these institutions. He also analyzes what is happening in neighboring Burundi and the Congo. An important research for scholars and policymakers involved with Central African affairs and ethnicized conflict.
"The Use of Propaganda in the Rwandan Genocide. A Study of RTLM. by Hege Løvdal Gulseth This 140 page thesis was part of a Master's degree in Political Science (University of Oslo). The thesis makes a textual analysis of transcripts of RTLM broadcasts, analyzes how the radio station used different propaganda techniques to create an Tutsi enemy image and places the propaganda in a historical and social context. pdf format www.digbib.uio.no/publ/statsvitenskap/2004/19095/19095.pdf doc format www.duo.uio.no/publ/statsvitenskap/ 2004/19095/HegexGulseth.doc
National Security Archive Reports (est. 1985, GWUniv.)www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv"The U.S. and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994 Information, Intelligence and the U.S. Response" March 24, 2004 by William Ferroggiaro
"Evidence of Inaction : The US and the Genocide in Rwanda 1994 A Briefing Book dated August 20, 2001 Edited by William Ferroggiaro
Rwanda: One hundred days of horror, ten years on Rwanda 1994: a "drop of humanity in an ocean of horror" From 7 April to mid-July 1994, between 500,000 and one million people in Rwanda were slaughtered in a genocide that took place against a background of civil war. In April 2004 the government and people of Rwanda, and with them the international community, are commemorating these tragic events. The ICRC, which remained present in the country throughout those terrible months, is sharing in these days of mourning. www.icrc.org/Web/Eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/rwanda
"The Rwandan Genocide: A Brief OverView" (Nov. 2003) by Gerry Caplan, Eric Markusen, and Linda Melvern [13 page PDF file]
Conference "LIFE AFTER DEATH Rebuilding Genocide Survivors' Lives: Challenges and Opportunities, An International Conference of Survivors, Kigali, Rwanda (November 25-30, 2001)
Carlsson Report on Rwanda 1999 (Link not working) "Report of the Independent Inquiry into United Nations actions during the 1994 Rwanda genocide" presented 15 December 1999 by Ingvar Carlsson former Swedish Prime Minister, Han Sung-Joo, former South Korea Foreign Minister (1993-94) and M. Kupolati of Nigeria, retired Nigerians lieutenant general knowledgeable on United Nations peacekeeping operations. Alternate web location (Web Genocide Documentation Centre ) This panel was appointed in May 1999 by Kofi Annan The Report finds that the UN ignored evidence that genocide was planned and had refused to act once it began. In particular the Report is critical of the Security Council's April 21, 1994 decision to reduce the strength of the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) after the genocide began and highlights the role of Kofi Annan, who was head of UN peacekeeping at the time, sharply criticizing his failure to act on a January 11, 1994 warning of the risk of genocide sent by Gen. Dalliare, head of the UN peacekeepers in Rwanda. The panel recommended that the Secretary-General should initiate an "action plan to prevent genocide" in which each part of the "United Nations system, including Member States, should examine what active steps" they should take. The plan should include a "follow-up mechanism to ensure that such steps are taken."
Rwanda: The Preventable Genocide (english) Report of the "International panel of eminent seven personalities to investigate the 1994 genocide in Rwanda and the surrounding events. This is a large 289 page PDF file[The panel consisted of Chairman Ketumile Masire (Botswana), Toumani Toure (Mali), Lisbet Palme (Sweden), Stephen Lewis (Canada), Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf (Liberia), Hocine Djoudi (Algeria), Justice P.N. Bhagwati (India)], July 7, 2000 [ since this report was created the OAU became the AU]
"Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda" joint 1999 HRW/FIDH by MacArthur Fellow Alison Des Forges, a senior advisor for Human Rights Watch, describes how the genocide was planned and how it could have been prevented by the international community. Widely considered to be the most thorough account of the planning of the genocide, Des Forges, , the report/book explores the role of state institutions, policies, and the media, all of which were manipulated for the purposes of the genocide. By Human Rights Watch www.hrw.org and FIDH www.fidg.org http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda/ 1999
Preventing Genocide: How the Early Use of Force Might Have Succeeded in Rwanda Scott R. Feil, April 1998
Gacaca genocide trials began on March 11, 2005 in Rwanda. All over Rwanda, some 56,500 genocide suspects are appearing before 118 Gacaca (community-based semi-traditional) courts. See www.inkiko-gacaca.gov.rw
Research on the Rwandan Genocide:Rwanda Genocide Archive www.genocide94. a project of the Amahoro Foundation www.amahoro.nl
Rwanda Genocide Project of the Genocide Studies Program - Yale University (est. 1998, New Haven) www.yale.edu/gsp Website includes databases of Victims and Perpetrators (preliminary beta versions ) and Satellite Maps of Rwanda Before and After the 1994 Genocide
GenoDynamics Understanding Genocide Through Time and Space (University of Maryland). The GenoDynamics database concerns all genocide-related activities undertaken in Rwanda during the period between April 6th and July 30th, 1994. The database was compiled from numerous sources, derived from eyewitness accounts and archival research. GenoDynamics is interested in the following 4 questions: 1. What specifically took place during the genocide and how does this vary across the 100 days and across the country? 2. What explanatory factors are associated with the varying rates of participation, violence, and saving of other individuals ? 3. Who participated in the genocide and how does this vary across the 100 days and across the country? 4. How does information about these activities vary across sources? www.genodynamics.com
Fondation Hirondelle - Section Kinyarwanda Hirondelle Foundation (est. 1995, Lausanne, Switzerland) Media for Peace and Human Dignity
Rudy Brueggemann's June 1997 photo travel journal "Rwanda: My trip to the underworld"For educational material on the 1998 Akayesu case, the see Teaching Human Rights Online (THRO)When artist Kofi Setordji saw the television images of a bulldozer shoveling hundreds of bodies into a ditch in Rwanda in 1994, as if they were no more than waste, he decided it was time to act. He considered it his duty as an artist to show the world what had happened. He posed himself questions like: What is it that is making man waking up one day, deciding to exterminate a whole group of people? What is the role of the international community and of politicians. For two and a half years Setordji worked on the genocide monument, which consists of 300 pieces.The genocide monument is now on exhibit in Accra, Ghana. Parts of the it have been exhibited in the Ivory Coast, Senegal and France. Plans have a been made for a tour of Germany. A virtual exhibition of the Genocide Monument can be viewed online at: http://www.vmcaa.nl/genocide"Rwanda Le génocide des Tutsi" Exposition au Mémorial-CDJC du 9 avril au 14 mai Il y a exactement dix ans, en moins de 100 jours étaient exterminés plus d'un million de personnes au Rwanda, petit pays d'Afrique centrale. Engagé depuis plus de 50 ans dans un travail de mémoire et d'histoire autour de la Shoah, un génocide singulier et central dans l'histoire de l'Europe occidentale, le Mémorial-CDJC a souhaité s'associer à la commémoration de cette tragédie, le dernier génocide dans l'histoire du XXe siècle.100 Days 100 mins, (Nick Hughes, Rwanda/Kenya/UK, 2000; 96m) The horror of a decades old ethnic hatred flares out of control, forever transforming the lives and relationship of a young couple. Set in the breathtaking natural beauty of the Rwanda countryside, this first ever film made about the Rwandan civil war tells a story of genocide and human survival and is as uncompromising as it is haunting. A powerful and stunningly shot film told with compassion and integrity, infused with a humanity belying the horrors of the tragedy. This film is supported by Back Home a short personal film made by a British based returning refugee of the genocide, who tells his heartfelt story of how he now views his country. “‘100 DAYS’ was shot in Kibuye in 1999, a landscape of extraordinary beauty that had been the backdrop to some of the worst atrocities of the killings in 1994. In Kibuye Church, which was the site of an actual massacre, Rwandan actors played killers and victims, parts that were only too familiar to them. I and four Rwandan investors put up the money and equipment necessary. These investors had all lost countless family members. My Producer, Eric Kabera lost over 32 of his family, one Executive Producer lost his entire extended family of over 300. Nick Hughes (b. 1961) was in Kigali during the Rwandan Genocide of 1994. He wanted the story of the Genocide to be as widely understood as possible."...Sometimes in April" www.hbo.com/films/sometimesinapril/ Director Raoul Peck ("Lumumba") and HBO Films have begun production on "...Sometimes in April," an original project that is described as the first major film to tackle the horrors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The film, which stars Idris Elba (HBO's "The Wire"), Oris Erhuero ("Highlander: Endgame") and Debra Winger ("Terms of Endearment"), is shooting on location. Set in the present day with flashbacks to 1994, "...Sometimes in April" focuses on Rwandan Army officer turned teacher Augustin Muganza (Elba), a man forced to relive the genocide in his mind after receiving a letter from his brother Honori (Erhuero), a former broadcaster on trial at the International Tribunal in Arusha. Winger plays Prudence Bushnell, U.S. State Department Deputy Assistant Secretary for African Affairs.
Hotel Rwanda - www.mgm.com/ua/hotelrwanda Set in Kigali during Rwanda's genocidal civil war and tells the story of hotelier Paul Rusesabagina who saved the lives of thousands of helpless Rwandas.. Don Cheadle will star as Paul Rusesabagina, a brave hotel owner who saved thousands of people during the Rwandan genocide of the '90s. United Artists exec VP Danny Rosett said production will start in January 2004 in Johannesburg, South Africa, on Terry George's political drama "Hotel Rwanda," which stars Don Cheadle, Nick Nolte and Sophie Okonedo.
Shooting Dogs Michael Caton-Jones 2005 'Shooting Dogs', which details the massacre that took place at a secondary school in Kigali after the UN had abandoned it, will be screened in front of a vast audience of locals sometime this May. Based on a true story of a jaded Catholic priest (John Hurt,) who has been in Rwanda for decades running an educational compound, forges a relationship with young and idealistic English teacher (Hugh Dancy) who thinks he can make a difference. Both men find themselves caught up in the 1994 Rwandan genocide. The character of Father Christopher is inspired by a priest, Vjeko Curic, who Screenwriter :David Wolsencroft knew in Rwanda in 1994. At the outset of the genocide he refused to leave the country, countermanding the orders given to him by the Vatican. Throughout the genocide, Curic sheltered many hundreds of Tutsis and protected them from certain death. Curic remained in Rwanda but was tragically murdered in Kigali in 1998. [Fra Vjeko Curic was born on April 26, 1957 in Lupoglava, Croatia. He entered the Franciscan order on July 15, 1976 and was ordained to the priesthood on June 21, 1982 in Sarajevo. He began his missionary activity in Rwanda. On August 18, 1983.]
Documentaries:Shake Hands With the Devil: The Journey of Roméo Dallaire www.whitepinepictures.com/dallairesite/ 2005 (91 minute and 56 minute, English Verisons 56 minute French Version ) by Peter Raymont. Based on his best selling book Shake Hands With the Devil: The Journey of Roméo Dallaire is a one-hour documentary that follows the now-retired Canadian lieutenant-general on a trip back to Rwanda in 2004.
Itsembatsemba: Rwanda One Genocide Later 1996 (13 Min) Alexis Cordesse/Eyal Sivan | France
The genocide in Rwanda (Itsembasemba) that began on April 6th, 1994, took place amidst general indifference. Within one hundred days, soldiers and militiamen massacred at least 700,000 Tutsis. Using images taken two years after the genocide, in April 1996, combined with a sound track from Radio Television Mille Collines (RTLM) dating from April to June 1994, the film illustrates how RTLM began to transmit in 1991 with the help of the regime and played a key role in the unleashing and the coordination of the killing.
Chronicle Of A Genocide Foretold 1996 (141 Min) by Daniele Lacourse and Yvan Patry
Shot over three years on one tape, is in three parts following several Rwandans before, during, and after the genocide. the international community, including the U.S., sat by and watched as 800,000 Tutsi men, women and children were massacred. The killings took place under the eyes of UN peacekeepers. Part 1: "Blood was flowing like a river", Part 2: "We were cowards", Part 3: "We felt betrayed" captures some of the beauty and culture of Rwanda against which the unfolding atrocities stand out sharply...
Rwanda: History of A Genocide 1997 (52 Min) A film by Robert Genoud
Rwanda: in Search of Hope 1999 Producer/Director Peter Raymont documents a July 1999 visit by Canadians to Rwanda
The Arusha Tapes 2000 (120 Min) " Directed by award-winning South African filmmaker Mandy Jacobsona two-hour documentary film about the process of justice in the 1994 Rwanda genocide, was screened in two Rwandan townships last week, with over 400 people in attendance. the Internews film focuses on six trials at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, which is located in Arusha, Tanzania. The film includes extensive footage from the 1994 genocide in Rwanda, screening of 'The Arusha Tapes, a Kinyarwanda language documentary, at the Adventist Secondary School (ESAPAN). Internews Network produced the documentary, directed by renowned South African director Mandy Jacobson. 'The Arusha Tapes' chronicles six genocide trials completed before the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR).
Gacaca, Living Together Again in Rwanda? 2002 Anne Aghion captured the feelings of both survivors and alleged killers in the remote community of Ntongwe, just as the government was announcing the Gacaca (ga-CHA-cha), a new system of citizen-based justice intended to handle over 100,000 genocide suspects languishing in detention. Because it would take over a century to process these suspects through the country's devastated court system, in 2001 the Rwandan government revived the idea of traditional citizen tribunals called Gacaca (ga-CHA-cha) to process these cases. The Gacaca Tribunals would represent a remarkable democratization of justice for a people accustomed to dictatorial authority. They would also offer survivors the cathartic opportunity to publicly air the truth about what happened. Aghion follows prosecutors as they hold a "pre-Gacaca presentation" meant to educate the public about the new judicial system, and to clear the prisons of innocent suspects. The filmmaker presents the intertwining stories of both survivors and accused, and captures a preliminary hearing that draws nearly 1,000 people to a lush hilltop to observe and offer testimony. The film was the 2003 winner of UNESCO's coveted Fellini Prize.
“In Rwanda we say… The family that does not speak dies.” 2004 Anne Aghion's second film on the subject, continues Aghion’s quest to learn how the human spirit survives a trauma as unfathomable as the 1994 genocide. In Rwanda we say... The family that does not speak dies, the filmmaker returns to Ntongwe two years later. The Gacaca trials have yet to begin, as close to 16,000 suspects, still untried, are released across the country. Having confessed to their part in the genocide and having served the maximum sentence the Gacaca will eventually impose, perpetrators of appalling crimes are sent home to plow fields and fetch water alongside the people they victimized. The film focuses on the release of one suspect, and the effect of his return on his tiny hillside hamlet. Since 1999, Anne Aghion has been traveling to the rural Rwandan district of Ntongwe (n-HONG-way), to see how survivors and accused killers alike are coping in the aftermath of unfathomable tragedy, and to learn how they feel about the government's bold attempt to unify the country. Each of her films follows the inhabitants of this remote hillside community as the government enacts key reconciliation and justice initiatives. Together these documentaries chronicle the opening chapters in a new era for Rwanda, and a universal look at the strength of the human spirit.
The Last Just Man directed by Steven Silver 71 MINS, Color Assigned to Rwanda in August 1993 only months before the mass killing erupted, UN commander General Romeo Dallaire found that, despite his best efforts, he was unable to curtail the mass slaughter. In Steven Silver's award-winning documentary, a haunted Dallaire relates his personal account of one of the 20th century's worst cases of genocide and explains how politics and timidity conspired to prevent the UN from keeping the peace. TV14 Canada (AC, AL)
"Ghosts of Rwanda" by FRONTLINE, airing in the United States on PBS stations on Thursday, April 1, 2004 . Ghosts of Rwanda PBS to present 10th anniversary
Beatha "I will never forget being stopped at a roadblock."Dancilla "I could hear the militia going about their 'work' while my friends and neighbours groaned and breathed their last."Valentina Iribagiza b. 1981 "When they found someone breathing, they pulled them out and finished them off."Apollon Kabahizi b. 1972 "In history and civic education courses, we were taught that Tutsis were bad people."Domina Nyirandayambaje (b @ 1950) "I went to take an HIV test to make sure that I wasn't infected and I realized things weren't good on that point. The men who raped me died in prison."Yolande "What troubles me most is the silence surrounding our plight; we have always cried for help, and no one has ever listened."
Rwanda Commemoration Project: Genocide In Our Time by Washington College of Law's Center for Human Rights & Humanitarian Law
Rwanda Testimony Film Project www.rwandatestimony.org This webpage is in construction
Rwanda InformationExchange is an independent site created in New York in 1995, a year after the 1994 Genocide agaisnt Tutsis in Rwanda. Its main objective is for the world to have a window into Rwanda and other countries of the Great Lakes Region. www.rwanda.net
Never Again (EST 2002, London) an international student network founded by students from Canada, Rwanda, the UK and the US at the Institute for International Mediation and Conflict Resolution's 2001 Hague Symposium www.neveragaininternational.org see also Never Again and Never Again ‘Rwanda Project’
Friends of Rwanda, Inc. ( Est. 1996 in Chattanooga, Tennessee) is a 501c3 non profit organization raisesing money to help orphaned children in Rwanda with academic assistance. On April 26, 2002 the organization held a benefit 'All African Cultural Extravaganza' in Atlanta, Georgia. Since its inception, Friends of Rwanda has been able to assist 7 children with scholarships amounting up to $7,110.00 .www.friendsofrwanda.org
Never Again (EST 2002, London) an international student network founded by students from Canada, Rwanda, the UK and the US at the Institute for International Mediation and Conflict Resolution's 2001 Hague Symposium www.neveragaininternational.org see also Never Again and Never Again ‘Rwanda Project’
Fonds National pour l'Assistance aux Rescapés du Génocide(FARG/Victims of Genocide Fund ) Kigali / Rwanda firstname.lastname@example.org
"Through the Eyes of Children: the Rwanda Project" a documentary photography project of photographs taken by the children of the Imbabazi Orphanage in Gisenyi, Rwanda. To read about this project and to view the photographs & learn about the children, please refer to the web site http://www.rwandaproject.org
Amahoro Foundation Amahoro means "Peace" Established to assist war-affected children in Rwanda and its neighbouring countries. In particular, the Amahoro Foundation works to help orphans, advance education, and relieve poverty. www.amahoro.nl
AVEGA (link not working) Association des veuves du génocide Agahozo / Association of Genocide Widows. Founded in January 1995, this organization of 25,000 genocide widows, which runs the Agahozo Center (Agahozo: "the place where tears are dried.") Rape was a dliberate part of the 1994 genocide. Many survivors say they were raped in order to infect them, making the AIDS virus a slow-acting weapon of genocide. www.avega.org.rw
Barakabaho Foundation The Rwanda Development Trust The Barakabaho Foundation, based in Rwanda, runs a sponsorship programme for child headed households. The Rwanda Development Trust based in Kent in England, serves as an intermediary for the Barakabaho Foundation.
Benimpuhwe ("From the Heart" in Kinyarwanda), is an association of women working to rebuild their lives and their country. BENIMPUHWE, a partner organization in Rwanda of the international women's organizatin MADRE ,is constructing a new village on the scorched earth of the genocide and built 180 houses, for mostly women-headed families made homeless by massacres of 1994.
CLADHO Collectif des Ligues et Associations des Droits de l'Homme. A collective of human rights organizations.
Duterimbere ("Advancing Forward -- Women who work together for a better future" in the Kinyarwanda language.) Duterimbere gives individuals and women's cooperatives workingcapital loans of around US $150. Investing money in activities that use their skills, such as craftwork, sewing and baking, the women repay the loans at a low rate of interest over a period of 12 months.
Ibuka (Remember), the main Rwandan genocide survivors organization
International conference of genocide survivors in Rwanda November 2001 - An international conference of genocide and holocaust survivors was opened in the Rwandan capital Kigali under the theme "Rebuilding the lives of Genocide survivors"
Itangazo Ryamamaza Hose Agaciro K'Umunu (UDHR, Paris, 1948)
Itsembabwoko Amasezerano 1948. (article 2, 3 )
Geekcorps in the support of the Gacaca Trials Geekcorps, the "Peace Corps for Geeks"has partnered with the Kigali, Rwanda firm Alphasoft. In 2001 Geekcorps ("technology vlunteeers enabling communities worldwide") joined with International Executive Service Corps (IESC, est. 1964) volunteer business experts working in developing regions.
Healing through Connection and Understanding Project www.heal-reconcile-rwanda.org see also the associated new project Psychology of Peace and the Prevention of Violence (est. 2004, UMass-Amherst)
Kigali Public Library Project A Project of the Rotary Club of Kigali-Virunga Turning Tools of Destruction into Tools of Knowledge
Mahakama ya Kimataifa ya Watuhumiwa wa Mauaji ya Halaiki ya Rwanda (ICTR-Arusha) rukiko mpuzamahanga rwashyiriweho u Rwanda http://www.umuseso.com/
Nyamata Memorial Project a project of Aegis Trust
Office Rwandais d'Information (Rwandan National Information Office) Government website, inclusing Radio Rwadna http://www.orinfor.gov.rw/
Remember Rwanda Rwanda 10th Anniversary Memorial Project (est. 2001, Toronto, Canada) http://www.visiontv.ca/RememberRwanda
Rwanda Fund UK-based project funding Genocide Memorial Centres, Education:, and Economic and Community Regeneration IN rwanda www.rwandafund.org a project of Aegis Trust
Survivors Fund (SURF) Mbandikiye kubamenyesha ko nabonye website yanyu kaba nashakagako twagira contact kuko umuryango Survivors Fund uba UK umaze imyaka 7 ushasha abacytse kwi cumu. Ninatwe twahaye AVEGA inkunga yokumenyekana yanze yu Rwanda kuva 1996. Mushobora kumenye imikorere yacu kuli www.survivors-fund.org.uk www.survivors-fund.org.uk
Women for Women International (Wash.D.C., USA) Projects include work with genocide survivors in Rwanda www.womenforwomen.org
Web site y'Urukiko Nshinjabyaha Mpuzamahanga rwagenewe u Rwanda (TPIR/ICTR- Arusha) Urukiko Mpuzamahanga rwashyizweho n'Inama ishinzwe amahoro ku isi mu cyemezo cyayo 955 ku itariki 8 Ugushyingo 1994, kugirango ruce imanza z'abantu bacyekwaho kuba barakoreye mu Rwanda ibyaha by'itsembabwoko.
Umubano (co-operation) Rwandan Community Organisation in the United Kingdom established in September 1998 to respond to problems that Rwandan refugees and asylum seekers, including housing, education, legal protection, trauma, and others. www.refugeesonline.org.uk/umubano
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